CTD - Measures conductivity, temperature and depth.
Conductivity is a measure of how well a solution conducts electricity. Conductivity is directly related to salinity (the saltiness of the water) Salinity is one of the most basic measurements used by oceanographers. When combined with temperature data, salinity measurements can be used to determine seawater density which is a primary driving force for major ocean currents.

http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/facts/ctd.html

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Niwa

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